帖子主题: 高中英语语法(七)  

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发表于:2012-08-17 15:16:15
(七)进行时  
  1. -ing分词的构成-ing分词是由动词原形加词尾-ing构成。-ing分词同样有时态和语态的变化,通常有下表几种形式(以do为例):
  主动形式被动形式一般式doing being done完成式having done having been done -ing分词的否定形式是由not 加-ing分词构成。如:
  Not knowing his address, I could do nothing but stay at home and wait.不知道他的地址,我只好在家里等着。
  His not coming made all of us angry. 他没来使我们大家都很生气。
  2. -ing分词的一般式和完成式:
  -ing分词的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作同时进行的动作;完成式表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。如:
  Being a student, he was interested in books. 作为一个学生,他对书本很感兴趣。
  Not having studied his lessons very hard, he failed the examinations. 因为没有努力学习功课,他考试不及格。
  3. -ing分词的被动式:
  -ing分词的被动式表示它的逻辑主语是-ing分词动作的承受者。根据-ing分词动作发生的时间,-ing分词的被动式有一般被动式(being done)和完成被动式(having been done)。如:
  The question being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。
  He never talked about his having been interviewed by the reporter. 他从来没谈起过他被记者采访的事情。
  Having been criticized by the teacher, he gave up smoking. 被老师批评以后,他把烟戒了。
  注意:在need, want, require, be worth等动词(短语)后,作宾语的-ing分词常用主动形式来表示被动含义。如:
  Your shoes need cleaning. = Your shoes need to be cleaned. 你的鞋需要清洗一下了。
  This book is well worth reading. 这本书很值得一看。
  4. -ing分词的语法作用-ing分词一方面具有动词的性质,另一方面也相当于一个名词或形容词、副词,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补语等。
  (1)-ing分词(短语)作主语:
  Laying eggs is the ant queen''s full-time job. 产卵是蚁后的专职工作。
  Saying is easier than doing. 说比做容易。
  在下面两种结构中,-ing分词也作主语。
  ①为了保持句子平衡,通常用作形式主语,而把真实主语放在句末。如:
  It is no use crying over spilt milk. 作无益的后悔是没有用的。
  It''s a waste of time arguing about it. 辩论这事是浪费时间。
  ②在There is no结构中,通常用-ing分词。如:
  There is no joking about such matters. 这种事开不得玩笑。
  There is no holding back the wheel of history. 历史车轮不可阻挡。
  (2)-ing分词(短语)作表语:
  His hobby is collecting stamps. 他的爱好是收集邮票。
  The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令人困惑。
  (3)-ing分词作宾语:
  ①-ing分词作动词宾语。如:I suggest doing it in a different way. 我建议用另一种方法做这件事。
  We enjoy attending Miss Li''s class. 我们喜欢听李老师的课。
  ②-ing分词作宾语也可用在复合宾语中作真正的宾语,而用it作形式宾语。如:
  I don't think it possible living in such a cold place. 我认为住在这么寒冷的地方是不可能的。
  Do you consider it any good trying again? 你觉得再试一次会有好处吗?
  ③-ing分词作介词宾语,经常用在一些短语的后面。如:
  I''m against inviting him to dinner. 我反对邀请他来吃饭。
  They don't feel like walking that much. 他们不喜欢走那么多路。
  He went to London in the hope of being a famous painter. 他去了伦敦,希望能成为一个著名的画家。
  此类短语还有很多。如:look forward to(渴望,盼望), be proud of(以……自豪), be responsible for(对……负责), insist on(坚持), think of(考虑,想到), dream of(梦想), object to(反对,抗议), hear of(听说), prevent…from(防止,阻止), keep…from(防止,阻止), stop…from(防止,阻止), be engaged in(从事于), depend on(依*,依赖), thank…for(因……而道谢), excuse…for(因……而道歉), aim at(目的在于), devote…to(献身于), set about(着手做), be/get used to(习惯于), be fond of(喜欢), be afraid of(害怕), be tired of(对……厌烦), succeed in(成功地做……), be interested in(对……感兴趣), be ashamed of(对……感到羞愧)等等。
  注意:在有些句子中,介词常可省去。如:
  I have no difficulty (in) communicating with foreigners. 我在和外国人交谈方面没有什么困难。
  He used to spend a lot of time (in) playing games. 过去他常花很多时间玩游戏。
  What can prevent us (from) getting married? 有什么能阻止我们结婚?
  另外,-ing分词可以和一些介词如in, on, after, against, before, by, for, without, besides等构成短语,在句中作状语。如:
  He left ahead of time without saying a word. 他一句话也没说就提前离开了。
  Besides cooking and sewing, she had to take care of four children.除了做饭和缝纫以外,她还要照顾四个孩子。
  On hearing the news, all the pupils jumped with joy. 听到这个消息后,所有的学生都高兴得跳了起来。
  (4)-ing分词作定语:
  ①单个的分词作定语一般放在被修饰词的前面。如:
  reading room 阅览室 swimming pool 游泳池 dining car 餐车sleeping car 卧车 singing competition 歌咏比赛 waiting room 候车室a waiting car 一辆等待着的车 a sleeping child一个酣睡的孩子 flying fish 飞鱼the exciting news令人振奋的消息 a boring speech令人乏味的演出②-ing分词短语作定语应放在被修饰词的后面,也相当于一个定语从句。如:
  Who is the comrade standing by the door? 站在门边的同志是谁?
  They lived in a house facing south. 他们住在一所朝南的房子里。
  ③-ing分词还可以作非限制性定语,相当于一个非限制性定语从句,常用逗号和句子其它部分分开。如:
  The words, usually dealing with current work, were mostly written by himself.歌词一般讲当前的工作,大部分是他自己写的。
  When she appeared, John, wearing a dirty and worn-out overcoat, ran to her with joy. 当她出现的时候,约翰穿着一件又脏又破的大衣高兴地跑了过去。
  (5)-ing分词做状语:
  -ing分词作状语可以表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。
  ①-ing分词短语作时间状语,相当于一个时间状语从句,有时可由连词when, while引出。如:
  While reading the book, he nodded from time to time. 他一边看书,一边不时地点头。
  Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood. 看到那些画,他想起了她的童年。
  ②-ing分词短语作原因状语,相当于一个原因状语从句。如:
  Not knowing his address, I can't send this book to him. 因为不知道他的地址,我不能把这本书送给他。
  Many of us, being so excited, couldn't go to sleep that night. 因为非常激动,那晚我们许多人都没睡着。
  ③-ing分词短语作结果状语。如:
  His father died, leaving him a lot of money. 他父亲死了,留给他许多钱。
  She was so angry that she threw the toy on the ground, breaking it into pieces.她非常生气,把玩具扔在地上,把它摔成了碎片。
  ④-ing分词作伴随状语,可以放在句子的前面、后面或中间,表示主语的另一个、较次要的动作。如:
  They stood there for half an hour watching the stars in the sky. 他们在那儿站了半小时,观察着天上的星星。
  Following the old man, the young people started walking slowly.年轻人跟在老人的后面开始慢慢地走起来。
  ⑤-ing分词间或也可作条件状语和让步状语,相当于一个状语从句。如:
  A person standing at the foot of a high mountain will find himself very small.一个人如站在大山的脚下会发现自己很渺小。
  Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. 尽管知道了一切情况,他们还是要我赔偿损失。
  注:-ing分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语就是整个句子的主语。
  ⑥“with/without+名词普通格或代词宾格+-ing分词”结构在句中作状语,表示伴随情况或时间、原因等。如:
  His hair became grey with the years passing. 随着时间的推移,他的头发变花白了。
  Without anyone noticing, he slipped through the window. 没人注意,他从窗户溜了出去。
  (6)-ing分词作补语:
  ①——ing分词可以在see, hear, notice, watch, feel, look at, listen to, observe, have, get, leave, keep, set, catch, find等动词后面和一个名词或代词构成一个复合宾语,作宾语补语。如:
  I noticed a man running out of the bank when I got off the car.我下车的时候注意到一个男人匆匆忙忙地从银行里跑出来。
  Last night the shopkeeper caught a child stealing some food in the shop.昨晚,店主在商店里抓到一个小孩在偷东西。
  ②上面这类句子也可变成被动语态,这时,-ing分词可看成是主语补语。如:
  We were kept waiting for quite a long time. 让我们等了好长时间。
  Jily was never heard singing that song again. 人们再也没有听到吉丽唱这首歌了。
  5. -ing分词的复合结构:
  -ing分词的复合结构通常由物主代词、人称代词宾格、名词所有格或者名词的普通格+-ing分词构成,在句子开头时必须用物主代词和名词所有格,通常在句中作主语和宾语。如:
  His coming made us very happy. 他的到来使我们大家都很高。
  He was awakened by someone's knocking at the door. 他被某人的敲门声吵醒了。
 
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发表于:2012-10-10 08:19:31
学习了!~楼主辛苦了~!
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高中英语语法(七)


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