(三)宾语从句
  1. 定义:用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。
  2. 构成:关联词+简单句3. 引导宾语从句的关联词有三类:
  (1) 从属连词that.如:
  He told us that he felt ill. 他对我们说他感到不舒服。
  I know he has returned. 我知道他已经回来了。
  注: that在引导宾语从句时也并不是任何情况下都可以省略。在以下情况下,that不能省略。
  1. Everybody could see what happened and that Tom was frightened.(and连接两个宾语从句,that宾语从句放在and的后面时,that不能省略。)
  大家都会看出所发生的事情并知道Tom非常害怕。
  2.I know nothing about him except that he is from the south.(that引导的宾语从句作介词宾语时,that不能省略。)
  对他我一无所知,只知道他是南方人。
  3.That he ever said such a thing I simply don't believe. (that从句位于句首时,that不可省略。)
  我简直不相信他曾说过这样的话。
  4. We decided, in view of his special circumstances, that we would admit him for a probationary period. (主句谓语动词与that从句之间有插入语,that不可省略。)
  鉴于他的特殊情况,我们决定应允他一段试用期。
  (2)从属连词if/whether.如:
  I doubt whether he will succeed. 我怀疑他是否会成功。
  I don't know if you can help me. 我不知道你能否帮助我。
  (3)连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever连接副词 where, when, how, why.如:
  Who or what he was, Martin never learned.他是什么人?他是干什么的?马丁根本不知道。
  I wonder what he's writing to me about. 我不知道他要给我写信说什么事。
  I'll tell you why I asked you to come. 我会告诉你我为什么要你来。
  You may do what you will. 你可做任何你想做的事。
  (1) 介词宾语从句宾语从句也可用作介词的宾语。如:
  He was deeply displeased by what had occurred that day.他对那天发生的事感到很不快。
  I walked over to where she sat. 我走向她坐的地方。
  I am curious as to what he will say. 我很想知道他要说什么。
  Your success will largely depend upon what you do and how you do it.你是否成功将主要取决于你做什么和怎样做。
  有时介词可以省略。如:
  I don't care (for) who marries him. 我不管谁跟他结婚。
  Be careful (as to) how you do that. 你要注意做这件事的方式。
  解释:
  1.如果宾语从句后还有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,而将宾语从句后置。如:
  We thought it strange that Xiao Wang did not come yesterday.我们认为小王昨天没来是奇怪的。
  He has made it clear that he will not give in.他已表明他不会屈服。
  2.作介词的宾语:连词that引导的名词性从句很少作介词的宾语,只用在except, but, in后。其他一些介词的宾语从句如果由连词that引导,则需用it先行一步,作形式宾语。如:
  He is a good student except that he is careless.他是一个好学生,只是有点粗心。
  You may rely on it that I shall help you. 你可以指望我会帮助你的。
  介词宾语不可以用which来引导,而要用what来引导。如:
  Are you sorry for what you've done?
  你为你所做的一切感到内疚吗?
  3.某些形容词或过去分词后常接宾语从句,这类形容词或过去分词有sure, glad, certain, pleased, happy, afraid, surprised, satisfied等,连词that可省略。如:
  I am not sure what I ought to do.我不能确定我该做什么。
  I'm afraid you don't understand what I said.恐怕你没领会我说的意思。
  I'm surprised that I didn't see all that before.我好奇怪,我以前没看到过。
  Mother was very pleased her daughter had passed the exams.妈妈为她的女儿通过了考试而感到高兴。
  4.连词whether (…or not)或if引导的宾语从句if和whether引导的宾语从句可以互换使用,但whether常和or not连用,if一般不与or not连用。如:
  I wonder whether it is true or not. 我不知它是真是假。
  用if引导宾语从句如果会引起歧义,应避免使用if而用wheter.试比较:
  Please let me know if you want to go. Please let me know whether you want to go. if从句可理解为宾语从句,意为“请告诉我你是否想去”;此句又可理解为条件状语从句意为“如果你想去的话,请告诉我一声”。
  5.宾语从句的否定转移。在think, believe, suppose, expect等动词后的宾语从句,有时谓语尽管是否定意思,却不用否定形式,而将think等动词变为否定形式。如:
  I don't think you are right. 我认为你错了。
  I don't believe they have finished their work yet. 我相信他们还未完成他们的工作。
  I don't suppose he cares, does he? 我想他不在意,是吗?
  6. 宾语从句的时态变化规律:
  (1) 当主句是一般现在时态时,从句可根据需要用任何时态。
  (2) 当主句是一般过去时态时,从句只能使用过去范围内的任何时态。但客观真理除外。如:
  The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.老师说地球绕着太阳运行。